The Invention and Evolution of the Telephone

 

telephone directory notebook

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In the s, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically. Both men rushed their respective designs telephone directory notebook these prototype telephones to the patent office within hours of each other. Bell patented his telephone first and later emerged the victor in a legal dispute with Gray. Today, Bell's name is synonymous with the telephone, while Gray is largely forgotten.

But the story of who invented the telephone goes beyond these two men. He was immersed in the study of sound from the beginning. His father, uncle, and grandfather were authorities telephone directory notebook elocution and speech therapy for the deaf. It was understood that Bell would follow in the family footsteps after finishing college.

However, after Bell's two other brothers died of tuberculosis, Bell and his parents decided to immigrate to Canada in After a brief period living in Ontario, telephone directory notebook, the Bells moved to Boston, where they established speech-therapy practices specializing in teaching deaf children to speak. One of Alexander Graham Bell's pupils was a young Helen Keller, who when they met was not only blind and deaf but also unable to speak.

Although working with the deaf would remain Bell's principal source of income, he continued to pursue his own studies of sound on the side. As President James Garfield lay dying of an assassin's bullet inBell hurriedly invented a metal detector in an unsuccessful attempt to locate the fatal slug. The telegraph and telephone are both wire-based electrical systems, and Alexander Graham Bell's success with the telephone came as a direct result of his attempts to improve the telegraph.

When he began experimenting with electrical signals, the telegraph had been an established means of communication for some 30 years, telephone directory notebook. Although a highly successful system, the telegraph was basically limited to receiving and sending one message at a time.

Bell's extensive knowledge of the nature of telephone directory notebook and his understanding of music enabled him to conjecture the possibility of transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time. Although the idea of a "multiple telegraph" had been in existence for some time, no one had been able to fabricate one—until Bell. His "harmonic telegraph" was based on the principle that several notes could be sent simultaneously along the same wire if the notes or signals differed in pitch.

By Octobertelephone directory notebook, Bell's research had progressed to the extent that he could inform his future father-in-law, Boston attorney Gardiner Greene Hubbard, about the possibility of a multiple telegraph.

Hubbard, who resented the absolute control then exerted by the Western Union Telegraph Company, instantly saw the potential for breaking such a monopoly and gave Bell the financial backing he needed. Bell proceeded with his work on the multiple telegraph, but he did not tell Hubbard that he and Thomas Watson, a young electrician whose services he had enlisted, were also developing a device that would transmit telephone directory notebook electrically.

While Watson worked on the harmonic telegraph at the insistent urging of Hubbard and other backers, Bell secretly met in March with Joseph Henrythe respected director of the Smithsonian Institution, who listened to Bell's ideas for a telephone and offered encouraging words, telephone directory notebook. Spurred on by Henry's positive opinion, Bell and Watson continued their work.

By June the goal of creating a device that would transmit speech electrically was about to be realized. They had proven that different tones would vary the strength of an electric current in a wire.

To achieve success, they, therefore, needed only to build a working transmitter with a membrane capable of varying electronic currents and a receiver that would reproduce these variations in audible frequencies, telephone directory notebook. On June 2,telephone directory notebook, while experimenting with his harmonic telegraph, the men discovered that sound could be transmitted over a wire. It was a completely accidental discovery. Watson was trying to loosen a reed that had been wound around a transmitter when he plucked it by accident.

The vibration produced by that gesture traveled along the wire into a second device in the other room where Bell was working. The "twang" Bell heard was all the inspiration that he and Watson needed to accelerate their work.

They continued to work into the next year. Bell recounted the critical moment in his journal:. Watson, come here—I want to see you. Bell patented his device on March 7,and the device quickly began to spread. Byconstruction of the first regular telephone line from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts, had been completed. By the end ofthere were 47, telephones in the United States. Transcontinental service began in Bell founded his Bell Telephone Company in As the industry rapidly expanded, Bell quickly bought out competitors, telephone directory notebook.

After a series of mergers, the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. It would maintain its control over the U. The first regular telephone exchange was established in New Haven, Connecticut, in Early telephones telephone directory notebook leased in pairs to subscribers. The subscriber was required to put up his own line to connect with another.

InKansas City undertaker Almon B. Strowger invented a switch that could connect one line to any of lines by using relays and telephone directory notebook. The Strowger switch, as it came to be known, was still in use in some telephone offices well over years later.

The first exchange using the Strowger switch was opened in La Porte, Indiana, in Initially, subscribers had a button on their telephone to produce the required number of pulses by tapping. An associate of Strowgers' invented the rotary dial inreplacing the button. InPhiladelphia was the last major area to give up dual service rotary and button.

Inthe coin-operated telephone was patented by William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut. Gray's pay phone was first telephone directory notebook and used in the Hartford Bank. Unlike pay phones today, telephone directory notebook, users of Gray's phone paid after they had finished their call. Pay phones proliferated along with the Bell System.

By the time the first phone booths were installed intelephone directory notebook, there were aboutpay phones in the U.

By the turn of the 21st century, there were more than 2 million pay phones in the nation. But with the advent of mobile technology, the public demand for pay phones rapidly declined, and today there are fewer thanstill operating in the United States.

Bypush-button phones were more common than rotary-dial models in American homes. In the s, the very first cordless phones were introduced. Inthe Federal Communications Commission granted the frequency range of 47 to 49 MHz for cordless phones. Granting a greater frequency range allowed cordless phones to have less interference and need less power to run, telephone directory notebook.

Indigital cordless phones, and indigital spread spectrum DSSwere both respectively introduced, telephone directory notebook. Both developments were intended to increase the security of cordless phones and decrease unwanted eavesdropping by enabling the phone conversation to be digitally spread out. Inthe FCC granted the frequency range of 2.

The earliest mobile phones were radio-controlled units designed for vehicles. They were expensive and cumbersome, and telephone directory notebook extremely limited range. Byit had been replaced by the first cellular networks. Although the radio frequencies needed were not yet commercially available, the concept of connecting phones wirelessly through a network of "cells" or transmitters was a viable one.

Motorola introduced the first hand-held cellular phone in It was one page long and held 50 names; no numbers were listed, as the operator would connect you.

The page was divided into four sections: residential, professional, essential services, and miscellaneous. InReuben H. Donnelly produced the first Yellow Pages—branded directory featuring business names and phone numbers, categorized by the types of products and services provided.

By the s, telephone books, whether issued by the Bell System or private telephone directory notebook, were in nearly every home and business. But with the advent of the Internet and of cell phones, telephone books have been rendered largely obsolete. Prior tothere was no dedicated phone number for reaching first responders in the event of an emergency.

That changed after a congressional investigation led to calls for the establishment of such a system nationwide. On Feb. The network would be introduced to other cities and town slowly; it wasn't until that at least half of all American homes had access to a emergency network.

Several researchers created devices for identifying the number of incoming calls, including scientists in Brazil, Japan, and Greece, starting in the late s. In the U. Over the next several years, the regional Bell Systems would introduce caller ID services in the Northeast and Southeast. Although the service was initially sold as a pricey added service, caller ID today is a standard function found on every cell phone and available on most any telephone directory notebook. Want to know more about the history of the telephone?

There are a number of great resources in print and online. It's an enthusiastic narrative of the telephone's history up to that point in time.

A History of the Telephone : Slate magazine has a great slide show of phones from the past to the present. The History of Pagers telephone directory notebook Before there were cell phones, there were telephone directory notebook. The first one was patented in The History of Answering Machines : Voicemail's precursor has been around almost as long as the telephone itself.

Share Flipboard Email. Mary Bellis, known by some as CalmX, was an experimental artist, film director and producer, video game content creator, and freelance writer for some 18 years. She specialized in writing about inventors and inventions, in particular.

Bellis died in March The first telephone call had just been made. Continue Reading.

 

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telephone directory notebook

 

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